Working with Rich Text¶
Normally styles apply to everything in an individual cell. However, rich text allows formatting of parts of the text in a string. This section covers adding rich-text formatting to worksheet cells. Rich-text formatting in existing workbooks has to be enabled when loading them with the rich_text=True parameter.
Rich Text objects can contain a mix of unformatted text and
TextBlock objects that contains an
InlineFont style and a
the text which is to be formatted like this. The result is a
>>> from openpyxl.cell.text import InlineFont >>> from openpyxl.cell.rich_text import TextBlock, CellRichText >>> rich_string1 = CellRichText( ... 'This is a test ', ... TextBlock(InlineFont(b=True), 'xxx'), ... 'yyy' ... )
InlineFont objects are virtually identical to the
objects, but use a different attribute name, rFont, for the name of the
font. Unfortunately, this is required by OOXML and cannot be avoided.
>>> inline_font = InlineFont(rFont='Calibri', # Font name ... sz=22, # in 1/144 in. (1/2 point) units, must be integer ... charset=None, # character set (0 to 255), less required with UTF-8 ... family=None, # Font family ... b=True, # Bold (True/False) ... i=None, # Italics (True/False) ... strike=None, # strikethrough ... outline=None, ... shadow=None, ... condense=None, ... extend=None, ... color=None, ... u=None, ... vertAlign=None, ... scheme=None, ... )
Fortunately, if you already have a
Font object, you can simply
InlineFont object with an existing
>>> from openpyxl.cell.text import Font >>> font = Font(name='Calibri', ... size=11, ... bold=False, ... italic=False, ... vertAlign=None, ... underline='none', ... strike=False, ... color='00FF0000') >>> inline_font = InlineFont(font)
You can create
InlineFont objects on their own, and use them later.
This makes working with Rich Text cleaner and easier:
>>> big = InlineFont(sz="30.0") >>> medium = InlineFont(sz="20.0") >>> small = InlineFont(sz="10.0") >>> bold = InlineFont(b=True) >>> b = TextBlock >>> rich_string2 = CellRichText( ... b(big, 'M'), ... b(medium, 'i'), ... b(small, 'x'), ... b(medium, 'e'), ... b(big, 'd') ... )
>>> red = InlineFont(color='00FF0000') >>> rich_string1 = CellRichText(['When the color ', TextBlock(red, 'red'), ' is used, you can expect ', TextBlock(red, 'danger')])
CellRichText object is derived from list, and can be used as such.
CellRichText objects do not add whitespace between elements when rendering them as strings or saving files.
>>> t = CellRichText() >>> t.append('xx') >>> t.append(TextBlock(red, "red"))
You can also cast it to a str to get only the text, without formatting.
>>> str(t) 'xxred'
Editing Rich Text¶
As editing large blocks of text with formatting can be tricky, the as_list() method returns a list of strings to make indexing easy.
>>> l = rich_string1.as_list() >>> l ['When the color ', 'red', ' is used, you can expect ', 'danger'] >>> l.index("danger") 3 >>> rich_string1.text = "fun" >>> str(rich_string1) 'When the color red is used, you can expect fun'
Rich Text assignment to cells¶
Rich Text objects can be assigned directly to cells
>>> from openpyxl import Workbook >>> wb = Workbook() >>> ws = wb.active >>> ws['A1'] = rich_string1 >>> ws['A2'] = 'Simple string'